When they try to prove the positiveness of Khrushchev’s activities, they recall the resettlement of a mass of disenfranchised workers from barracks and communal apartments to separate apartments. They also add pension reform and certification of peasants. In fact, these are myths created to whitewash Nikita Sergeevich, who with his actions almost destroyed the USSR back in the 1960s.
The myth of the leading role of Khrushchev in mass housing construction
According to the generally accepted and very tenacious version, under Joseph Stalin, mostly beautiful houses were built according to individual projects and with spacious comfortable apartments (the so-called Stalin’s). But due to their complexity and high cost, they were few. Therefore, party and state officials received such apartments and people who managed to stand out, distinguished themselves. Ordinary people huddled in barracks and communal apartments.
Khrushchev, on the other hand, proposed to reduce the cost as much as possible, that is, to simplify housing construction, to switch to standard projects of five-story buildings with small, uncomfortable apartments. They were nicknamed “Khrushchevs”. Concrete blocks, from which it was possible to quickly build a house, were made in house-building factories. As a result, according to this myth, a large-scale program of housing construction began, and ordinary people began to receive, if not excellent, their own apartment.
However, if you study the documents of the Soviet era – the statistical collections “The National Economy of the RSFSR”, which provides information on the number of housing built and how many people have moved into new apartments, it will become obvious that this is another myth. It was created in order to somehow improve the image of Khrushchev among the people. Factual information completely refutes the legend about the massive construction of housing in the era of Khrushchev. Moreover, Nikita Sergeevich managed to screw up so much here that the housing problem in the Soviet Union became chronic and insoluble.
So, after the Great War, active construction of new enterprises took place throughout the Union. The builders and workers of the enterprise were housed in temporary barrack-type buildings. At the same time, next to the leading enterprises of the settlement, houses were erected for the workers of this plant, factory, etc. These were either individual one-story houses with 2-3 rooms with all communications, or two-story houses with 5 apartments. Individual houses worth 10-12 thousand rubles were transferred into the ownership of the owners with the help of a one-interest loan for 10-12 years. The loan repayment was just over a thousand rubles a year, or no more than 5% of the family’s income. Families moved into two-story houses without any payments, since these houses were state-owned. Usually people who came to a new enterprise from all over the country lived for some time in barracks, waiting for normal housing to be put into operation. Such houses accounted for approximately 40-45% of the total volume of urban construction. They consisted of urban-type settlements, small workers’ districts on the outskirts of cities near the enterprise. In the central districts of the cities, beautiful multi-storey buildings, “stalinkas”, were erected, which became the face of the settlement.
Every year, from 1950 to 1956, the number of people who received new apartments in houses of all types increased by about 10%, which corresponded to the growth rate of the gross national income of the USSR. In 1956, 3 million 460 thousand people (more than 6% of the total urban population) received new individual apartments (or houses) in the RSFSR, of which 2 million settled in multi-storey Stalinist buildings. There was not so much nomenclature not only in the RSFSR, but in the entire Union.
Khrushchev’s intervention in the Stalinist construction program began at the end of 1955. In the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of November 4, 1955, it was ordered to develop by November 1, 1956 standard projects of residential buildings without any “architectural excesses”. That is, Khrushchev curtailed the program of creating beautiful multi-storey buildings, from that time on, wretchedness and dullness were introduced in the USSR. True, so far this has only concerned the appearance of houses. The interior layout was left the same. In the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers of July 31, 1957, it was directed by directives to develop new standard projects of residential buildings, that is, “Khrushchev”, and to begin the construction of house-building plants. The first “Khrushchevs” began to be built in Moscow in 1958, their mass construction across the country began in 1959, and on an industrial basis in 1961, when the first house-building factories were commissioned.
For the construction of an apartment building, including the zero cycle and the supply of communications, then, as now, it took about a year. Thus, the mass settlement of brick “Khrushchev” began not earlier than 1960, and industrial ones – from 1962. It was to be expected that the mass receipt of new apartments by the population began in 1960. But statistics show otherwise. The number of people who moved into new apartments in the RSFSR grew from 1955 to 1961 – from 3158 thousand to 5229 thousand (the peak was in 1959 – 5824 thousand), then a decline begins, from 1962 to 1965 – from 5110 up to 4675 thousand. A similar picture with the built square meters: growth from 1955 to 1960 – from 21.8 to 51.3 million square meters. meters. Further, there is a fall, from 1961 to 1965 – from 49.3 to 47.5 million square meters. meters.
Thus, in 1956, 3.4 million people received new apartments in the “Stalinist” buildings in the RSFSR. Then the number of new settlers grew rapidly and reached 5.8 million in 1959. However, all these people do not move into the “Khrushchev”, but into the still Stalinist apartments and houses! And in 1960, when the Khrushchev houses appeared, the number of new settlers began to fall. The decline continued until the removal of Khrushchev in 1964, despite the introduction of industrial construction methods. And further, the number of people who received new apartments gradually decreased with each five-year period. That is, the housing crisis caused by Khrushchev’s “perestroika” could not be overcome in the future.
The myth of Khrushchev’s priority in housing construction in the USSR was not born out of nowhere. Mass construction began, but only in one city, in Moscow. In 1957, 12.7 million square meters were built in the Soviet capital. meters of housing in the form of “Khrushchev”, that is, 25% of all new housing in the RSFSR. During the reign of Nikita Khrushchev from 1956 to 1964, the housing stock of Moscow doubled, for example, in the second Soviet capital, in Leningrad it grew by only 25%.
Thus, without Khrushchev’s “perestroika” in the construction program for the period from 1956 to 1970, 115 million people could receive new city apartments and houses, while the urban population of the RSFSR in 1970 was 81 million. As a result, if the Stalinist program had been preserved, the housing problem in the Soviet Union would have been solved by 1970. At the same time, the houses would be beautiful, comfortable for life. Khrushchev introduced gray and wretched housing, predetermining the appearance of the red empire and giving our enemies another trump card in anti-Soviet propaganda. In reality, over the same period, 72 million people received new apartments of poorer quality, and the number of newcomers has been steadily decreasing since 1959. Khrushchev killed the Stalinist program and created another problem for the Union – housing (although in the USSR they still tried to solve it in the interests of the people, unlike the Russian Federation).
It is also worth noting that the sharp increase in the increase in housing commissioned in 1957-1959. was caused by another sabotage of Khrushchev in the national economy. In 1955, after Malenkov was removed from the post of chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, a large number of industrial projects and construction projects were frozen at the direction of Nikita Khrushchev. Including new construction companies. The freed up human and material resources were directed to housing construction. But further the growth of production of building materials also stopped, labor resources were exhausted, therefore, the commissioning of new housing also decreased. So for the sake of short-term success, which became the basis for the Khrushchev housing myth, they inflicted colossal damage not only in housing construction, but also in other sectors of the national economy.
The situation is similar in other areas. For example, the Ministry of Internal Affairs prepared the certification of peasants under Beria. Under pressure from Malenkov, in the regulation on passports adopted by the USSR Council of Ministers on October 21, 1953, it was indicated that at the request of any peasant he should be issued a passport. However, only since 1976 passports began to be issued to all Soviet citizens everywhere and without special requirements. Therefore, Khrushchev had nothing to do with passports for peasants.
Khrushchev is a destroyer; he did nothing useful for the people. In almost all spheres there is degradation, “mines”. In fact, he carried out “perestroika”, was preparing the destruction of Soviet civilization, but did not have time to complete his dirty work. However, under Khrushchev, the USSR was able to turn off the right course, which caused an increase in destructive processes, which led to the civilizational, national catastrophe of 1985-1993.