One of the main and necessary conditions for victory in a battle is to ensure communication between the centers of intelligence and command and military units. It was the collapse of the communications system that largely predetermined the heavy losses of 1941. Since then, the role of stable communication in combat has only grown. This is especially true of aerial combat, due to its transience. Therefore, today priority is given to the improvement of communication systems and complexes in the development of air defense systems.
Serious success in this direction was achieved in the course of the next modernization of the Tor-M2 anti-aircraft missile system, carried out by the designers of the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol and the research and production enterprise Rubin. A set of communications equipment (KSS) of the Tor-M2 air defense system has undergone modernization. In the course of it, the capabilities of the Tor family air defense systems were significantly expanded in a number of areas, in particular:
– Introduced visual notification of the approach of targets to the detection area of the BM SAM “Tor-M2” from a distance of up to 90 km. Even before the target enters the BM detection area (32 km), the operator can visually observe on the screen of the control panel the reconnaissance data of the air situation received through the battery command post from the radar of higher echelons. In this case, the targets are pre-ranked according to the degree of danger, their flight time to the detection zone of the SOC BM is determined. This significantly increases the ability to intercept air attack on the far border of the affected area;
– the possibility of receiving information on duty when the BM radio equipment is turned off is provided. On the one hand, this increases the combat stability of combat vehicles: when the radars are turned off, their detection becomes many times more difficult, and the guidance of anti-radar missiles (the most dangerous enemy of the air defense missile system) at them becomes impossible. On the other hand, this increases the effectiveness of combat work from an ambush: planes and helicopters “do not see” the BM and risk entering its affected area;
– it became possible to increase from four to eight the number of BM in the subordination of one BKP. Directly with the BKP, as before, four BMs are interfaced, each of which relays data to another, remote BM. Due to the relay and diversity of the BM on the ground, the area controlled by one BKP increases. At the same time, it becomes possible to use only two BKPs instead of four in a regiment or battalion. With the existing staffing, this makes it possible to increase combat stability (due to the fact that all BM of the regiment can continue combat work even in the event of failure of two BKPs). With the reduction of the regiment’s staff by two BKPs, this provides significant cost savings. At the same time, the pairing of eight BM with one BKP is possible without software and constructive modifications of the BM equipment, and the protocol remains universal for new and previously released products;
– the number of radio channels has been doubled, while the frequency range has been significantly expanded, and the number of radio frequencies has been reduced several times. The communication range with the BKP was increased from 5 to 10 km; interfacing with BM of an early release, as well as data exchange in anti-jamming and coded modes are preserved.
The key element of the KSS is the control panel, which configures the communication equipment, displays the tactical situation and the estimated time of approach of targets to the detection zone of the BM. In an abnormal situation (in case of failure of the control panel and AVSKU), the configuration of the KCC allows you to save (with restrictions) the pairing of the BKP and the BM.
Also, the updated communications kit allows the use of BM SAM “Tor-M2” as a command vehicle for air defense systems of a lower level. (for more details, see the corresponding article).
The modernized set of communications equipment has successfully completed state tests in May this year.
The upgraded communication equipment forms the promising appearance of the Tor-M2 air defense missile system and has been used in the production of BM since 2020. Improving communication and control systems significantly increases the capabilities of air defense, allowing it to adequately respond to existing and future air threats.