Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas.
The essence of the development of the disease lies in the fact that during the digestion of food, the enzyme substances that are secreted by the glandular tissue do not enter the duodenum, but remain directly inside the ducts of the organ, subjecting it to destruction.
By the nature of the course, acute and chronic pancreatitis are distinguished. Forms of pancreatitis: edematous (lighter, the gland is enlarged by 2-3 times, there is necrosis of single areas) and destructive (severe necrotic form, hemorrhages are characteristic).
According to the latest statistics, at least 70% of patients with pancreatitis are persons who abuse alcohol. Also, the main factors in the onset and development of this ailment are:
• toxic effects of certain substances (heavy metal salts, nitrites, nitrates);
• trauma to the digestive system;
• infectious and viral diseases;
• complication after gallstone disease;
• severe liver pathologies (hepatitis, steatosis, tumor neoplasms, cirrhosis);
• eating foods that contain excessive amounts of fat;
• long-term use of medications (hormonal, antibacterial drugs);
• autoimmune diseases;
• vascular disease;
• genetic predisposition.
Pancreatitis can be caused by one or several of the above negative factors. The lifestyle of a person, working conditions, the presence or absence of bad habits are of great importance.
Pancreatitis can go on for a long time without acute symptoms, until there is extensive damage to the tissues of the pancreas. In general, the disease manifests itself in the following symptoms:
• intense severe pain in the upper abdomen or within the entire abdominal cavity;
• severe, uncontrolled vomiting;
• bloating, belching, heartburn;
• lack of appetite;
• increased body temperature;
• weakness, pallor, sweating;
• stool disorder, diarrhea or constipation may occur;
• rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure.
Chronic pancreatitis has mild symptoms, while the signs of the acute form of the disease are always pronounced.
Diagnostics and treatment
To make an accurate diagnosis, you will need to undergo an initial examination by a doctor, pass the prescribed tests and examine the tissues of the pancreas. This is a collection of venous blood for its biochemical study, morning urine is collected, feces are donated. It is recommended to undergo ultrasound diagnostics directly of the glandular tissue itself, as well as organs located in the abdominal cavity. Also, if necessary, computed tomography, radiography, gastroscopy can be performed.
Pancreatitis therapy is based on the severity of the disease and has an integrated approach. The basis of therapy at the initial stage is the refusal to eat, nutrients are administered to the patient intravenously for 2-3 days. Later, it is necessary to adhere to a special diet, limit the use of high-calorie foods, animal fats.
Vegetarian meals are preferred. You should give up alcohol, caffeine, fatty and spicy foods. At each meal, you need to take enzyme preparations. Also, medications that suppress pancreatic secretion, antibiotics, antispasmodics can be prescribed individually, detoxification and anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out.
To prevent pancreatitis, you must adhere to the following recommendations:
• refusal from alcoholic beverages, smoking;
• limit intake of fried, too spicy, salty, fatty and smoked foods;
• eat foods rich in vitamins and microelements, do not use various semi-finished products;
• eat in small portions, do not overeat;
• banned the use of caffeine, chocolate;
• in case of symptoms of pancreatitis, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and biliary tract, consult a doctor in a timely manner;
• avoid psychoemotional overstrain, physical overwork.
Pancreatitis is a serious pathology of the pancreas, untimely treatment of which can lead to a number of other chronic diseases and complications. When the first symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a specialist.